Armed troops have taken over territory in Eastern Europe. First-world navies are jockeying for territorial waters in the South China Sea. Barbarous rebel forces are overrunning regime troops in Iraq and Syria.
And the jailing of Australian Peter Greste has shone a spotlight on the unrest in formerly stable countries like Egypt.
A century ago, the world was in such turmoil that all it took was a single bullet to trigger the Great War. Are we again in such a fragile state?
World peace seems to be in retreat. And while Australia is a long way from the epicentres of unrest, geography is no guarantee of immunity.
Terror attacks, militant uprisings and landgrabs by powerful nations are nothing new.
Terrorism wracked the world at the turn of the last century, though it was branded “anarchy” back then. So too did the sabre-rattling of ambitious new world powers.
In June, 1914, no-one would have believed that the blood of almost an entire generation would be spilt in trenches rent from the soil of France and Belgium.
In August 1939, no-one could have dreamt Nazi Germany would so soon be marching in lock-step down the Champs Elysees in Paris.
Can it happen again?
Can we imagine the modern Western world being set on fire?
Or are the similarities between then and now overstated?
A time of peace
As the Senior Lecturer in Security Studies at Murdoch University, Dr Rajat Ganguly, points out: It’s easy to overlook the large swathes of our planet which are actually now at peace.
“South and North America, Western and Central Europe, southern Africa, Australia, India, Southeast Asia; war between nation-states is less frequent today than it was 100 years ago,” he says.
Only one year ago, things were looking even better.
Osama bin Laden had been consigned to the deep in 2011. The other personification of evil, Saddam Hussein, had been executed in 2006.
The last of the “Coalition of the Willing” had been withdrawn from Iraq. A similar operation was well underway in Afghanistan.
That left only Syria’s President Assad and North Korea’s Kim Jong-un amid the ranks of a new axis of evil. Even Iran had become the subject of increasingly conciliatory noises from Washington.
“Mission Accomplished”, if not the words, was certainly the sentiment on many politicians’ lips.
Time for war?
Against all expectations, the past 12 months has produced cascading failures in international diplomacy.
This collapse has been captured this month in an annual “Global Peace Index”, produced by the Australia-based Institute for Economics and Peace. It claims the recent deterioration in world affairs — even before events in Ukraine and Iraq — has been the most serious since the end of World War II.
China has been butting-heads with Japan, Vietnam, South Korea, Malaysia and the Philippines over its territorial ambitions.
Iraq is suddenly on the brink of collapse, and Russia has strolled into Crimea with barely a murmur of dissent.
Thailand’s newborn constitutional government has again been toppled by a military coup and North Korea continues to push itself forward in a desperate bid to be taken seriously as a world power.
And all the while a war — though it has been called everything but — has been waged around the globe against growing extremist influences. US Special Forces have raided Libya and Somalia in an effort to kill or neutralise key commanders. The drone strikes in Yemen and other areas of the Middle East continue, unabated.
The terrorists also have had their fair share of victories. Al-Shabaab’s massacre at a Kenyan shopping mall killed 67 and drew the attention of the world. More than 300 schoolgirls were kidnapped and non-Muslims were massacred by extremists in Nigeria.
Then there was the attack on the US Embassy in Libya which killed the US Ambassador and three other US citizens.
The use of “hard power” is making a comeback, executive director of the Australian Strategic Policy Institute (ASPI) Peter Jennings writes in a recent blog. “It’s an ugly thing, supposedly a relic of an uglier past abandoned by modern states in favour of diplomacy … It never really went away.”
The heat is on
It was against a similar backdrop of international tensions and ambitions that a bullet claimed the life of Austria’s Archduke Franz Ferdinand.
It was a regional act over just one regional issue: The “Black Hand” political movement was upset that Austria was acting to prevent the formation of a unified “Greater Serbia” on its borders.
From Libya to Yemen, Iraq to Indonesia, the United States finds itself forced to be ready to respond to such regional issues.
“America’s challenge is immense: it must reconstitute a tired military and shake off its aversion to being dragged into conflicts at precisely the moment the rest of the world rediscovers the blunt-edged value of force,” Mr Jennings writes.
The separation between Somalia and China may seem remote. But so did the link between Serbia and Germany in 1914.
However, as Dr Ganguly points out, the world map was a very different beast a century ago. “The 1914 war was basically a European war, which became global due to far-flung European colonies,” he said. “The situation today is completely different. I think it will be a gross stretch to talk about World War III.”
War in the 21st century is nothing like that of a century ago. The fight is no longer on Winston Churchill’s seas and oceans. It is rarely in the air.
There have been no battles on the beaches, or landing grounds since Iraq in 1991. The fighting is all in the fields and streets — and in the hills. It’s ideology that never surrenders.
Some dismiss the recent resurgence of Islamic extremism in the Middle East as more about local politics than world affairs. But the bombing of the Boston Marathon last year by Sunni-affiliated terrorists shows such extremist attitudes are still a real and present danger.
But the “asymmetric” threat posed by the likes of al Qaeda is aimed at the West’s way of life. Victory there is a matter of instilling, and leveraging, fear. And in exploiting growing discontent. That war will likely never end.
If a modern prophet ever ends up marching down the Washington Mall, it will be at the head of an internal uprising: Not an Arabic invasion force.
But the world is, once again, a troubled place.
Is turmoil the New World Order? Or, once again in Churchill’s words: Will a New World, with all its power and might, step forth to the rescue and the liberation of the old?
The chill of the Cold War is back in the air. Russian bombers are again trailing their coats close to US and British borders. Warships and submarines are picking up their deadly dance where they left off more than two decades ago.
Even so, the Crimea crisis which sparked it all is already over. Russia possesses it. The West is doing little about it.
“Russia’s open military annexation of Crimea and barely-disguised subversion of Kiev’s authority in Ukraine’s eastern provinces constitute a show of hard power as naked as Hitler’s march into the Sudetenland,” says ASPI’s Peter Jennings.
But how far does President Putin’s ambition extend? Is it restrained to the once-were-Soviet states of Urkaine, Latvia and Belarus. And then there’s Poland — whose sovereignty has previously been abandoned to Russia after Hitler’s fall.
“I would not read too much into this,” Dr Ganguly says. “The Russians have long voiced concern about the expansion of NATO. Ukraine has become a test case for Russian resolve to resist the spread of NATO.”
Having been there and done that, Russia seems to have a good sense about what it can get away with. Other, newer powers may not.
2) The China Seas
Oil and gas are a common cause for war. And both are found in plenty among the scattered islands of South and East Asia. But now fish stocks are at the top of this race for resource control.
China is using a 900-year-old map from the height of its ancient empire as justification for claiming waters far from its modern shores. Nearby nations enjoying the benefits of a world defined by the outcome of World War II see things differently.
“Beijing has moved from the passivity of ‘peaceful rise’ rhetoric, through the more assertive diplomacy of 2010 to now, where hard-power behaviour at sea and in the air simply asserts China’s control.” ASPI’s Mr Jennings says.
But, as Dr Ganguly points out, tough-talk rarely equates to war. “There is yet no reason to believe that China will resort to war to fulfil its territorial ambitions,” he says. “It’s a complex economic relationship and the emerging tensions are part and parcel of a new evolving security order in which China, Japan, India and the US all want to play the pivotal role.”
Since the hugely expensive exercises in Afghanistan and Iraq, the word “intervention” has been anathema in the west. But the prevalent hope was that the turmoil would somehow remain contained by Syria’s borders. ISIS has proven that hope unfounded.
Now, Syria looks set to follow the path of Afghanistan and Iraq into lawlessness and chaos.
“What’s happening in Syria and Iraq is a clash by proxy between Sunni Islam led by Saudi Arabia and Shia Islam led by Iran,” says Dr Ganguly.
But the West remains focused on Syria’s president, Assad, and not the volatile religious powder keg he is sitting upon.
“Assad is a man who knows that losing power condemns him to a personal fate like Libya’s Gaddafi’s,” Mr Jennings writes.
It’s a blazing beacon to the failure of the West’s recent wars. It’s also the last thing President Obama needed on his plate.
Tens of thousands of lives have been lost and billions of dollars up-ended into the battlefields of Iraq. Now the nation seems to be lurching towards fragmentation, without an effective army or a functional government to lead it.
According to Dr Ganguly, it’s largely our own fault. “The problem was created by the US initially through the invasion of Iraq which toppled Saddam. Then the US military disengagement opened up space for civil war between armed militant groups that had initially mobilised to fight the US occupation.”
What arises from the ashes will determine the direction of the Middle East for decades to come. Will it be a hard-line Islamic Caliphate? Or can balance be found under strengthened, secular state?
Now Afghanistan fears being left similarly high-and-dry once the final US forces are pulled out in coming years. Will its US-trained military and police prove any more reliant in the face of fanatical Taliban fighters than those of Iraq when presented with ISIS?
As Mr Jennings points out: “There’s no post-Afghanistan peace dividend to be harvested”. Even President Obama appears to have quietly conceded this concern.
In recent weeks he approved a two-year extension for fighting forces to remain operational in the nation’s war-torn valleys. 2014 was supposed to be the last year on the ground. It certainly didn’t hurt al-Qaeda — it now larger and more decentralised than it was on September 11, 2001.
Afghanistan has been a melting pot of world politics for hundreds of years. This isn’t likely to end any time soon.
Even though this Shia nation has been pushing for decades to develop its own nuclear weapons, it seems to have recently restrained its territorial ambitions. Instead, it appears to be seeking strength against the turmoil of its own region — turmoil which threatens to tear down Syria and Iraq and form a rival “Caliphate” religious state.
Such an entity would only escalate the fractious politics of Islamic nations.
Only Saudi Arabia has seemed able to maintain any real sense of stability in the region. But for how long?
The fractious politics of Islam have not left the constitutional republic of Yemen untouched, even though it is far from the battlefields of Syria and Iraq. al-Qaeda-linked militants have recently attacked the presidential palace and tried to assassinate the defence minister.
US drone strikes against remote jihadist bases sporadically reach the news — usually when a misfire claims innocent lives. Yemen is now just another explosive element in the increasingly unstable powder-keg of the Middle East.
8) North Korea
Nuclear blasts. Missile tests. This rogue state keeps thrusting itself back into the news. Just this week the poverty-stricken dictatorship threatened war in response to the pending release of a comedy in the United States about its leader, Kim Jong-un. North Korea has been regularly playing a game of brinkmanship with South Korea and Japan. The region has long been one-wrong-move — or wayward missile — away from war.
The birthplace of the Arab Spring has already succumbed to a debilitating winter. Vying political and religious factions made the recent attempt at a valid government virtually unviable.
The military has since stepped in, and all the dramas associated with martial law have come back into play — not least the recent jailing of Australian journalist Peter Greste.
As one of the more powerful and populated nations of the Middle East, what happens here has direct implications for its neighbours spanning two continents.
Since the long-term dictatorship of Muammar Gaddafi was toppled in a NATO-supported Civil War in 20011, the seemingly inevitable march of Islamic extremists has brought a renewed jihad to this oil-rich Mediterranean state. The new democratic government has, once again, found itself in gridlock. Militias have stepped into the power vacuum and Western interests are increasingly coming under attack. Fresh elections this week once again have the world watching, and wondering.
Africa’s largest economy faces an uncertain future as increasingly militant religious extremist groups unleash turmoil upon an already fragile political system. Defections and extraordinary pork-barrel spending has become a feature of the lead-up to elections next year, but the nation remains wracked over the fate of nearly 400 schoolgirls abducted by extremists opposed to their education.
It’s yet another hotspot in the growing war of Islam.
War-torn Somalia is still struggling to repair its religious and racial divides after decades of internal struggle. Into this void has moved al-Shabaab, a clan-based terrorist group which boasts of ties with al Qaeda. This organisation claimed responsibility for a murderous attack on a shopping mall in nearby Kenya last year. In return, it has itself become the target of US Navy SEAL and drone raids.
Unweakened and more determined, al-Shabaab — supported by Britain’s “White Widow”, Samantha Lewthwaite, is expanding its campaign of terror into other neighbouring states.
Written by Jamie Seidel
News Corp Australia Network
Who Will Explain Coronavirus To Buhari?
Coronavirus (COVID-19), an exorable doom, threatens life on the planet. It is exorable because it is conquerable. This explains why world leaders are taking the charge to combat this ominous apocalypse. It is a time for leadership from the fore-end; a time when citizens must hear their leaders speak to them; see them take action, making assurances and fulfilling those promises. The counsel, consolation and firm statement of a leader is imperative at this moment.
In Canada, Justin Trudeau, prime minister, despite being in self-isolation and his wife battling the virus after contracting it at a conference in the UK, is leading the fight against this dreaded disease from the fore. He is providing regular updates of the efforts of his government to roll back this scourge, listening and speaking to citizens.
In a popular broadcast on March 13, Justin spoke to citizens of Canada announcing measures to relieve the financial stress brought on by the pandemic on Canadians.
“We do not want any Canadian to have to worry about whether or not they’re going to be able to pay their rent, whether or not they’re going to be able to buy groceries, or care for their kids or elderly family members. We need to make sure that Canadians have the options and the ability to follow the best public health advice and keep themselves safe,” he said.
In the UK, Boris Johnson, prime minister, leads the struggle against coronavirus. He provides updates, alongside health experts, on the measures his government is taking to tackle the spread of the disease. And in the US, Donald Trump is not shying away from speaking to Americans on the virus.
As a matter of fact, President Muhammadu Buhari’s lapses are often easily dismissed by his supporters or by Nigerians who do not know better. Some of them say, ‘’ Why must the president speak when the minister of health and the NCDC DG are already doing that?” This is a contemptible rationalisation of incompetence. Are they suggesting the president lacks the capacitance to understand the issues?’’
Really, I surmise the president has been walled off the ‘’candid cameras’’ over the years by his handlers – not just now – because he lacks the intellectual propensity to understand and discuss incisive issues. The last presidential media chat he held was in 2015 and it was a woeful outing. Also, his non-choreographed media interviews have been abysmal to say the least.
The truth is the unfiltered Buhari is a vacuously gaffing one. On October 14, 2016, standing beside Angela Merkel, German chancellor, Buhari said his wife, Aisha, ‘’belonged in the kitchen and the other room’’, when he was asked to comment on the first lady’s criticism of his government.
On April 18, 2018, at the Commonwealth Business Forum in London, the president said the young citizens of the country he leads are lazy.
“More than 60 per cent of the population is below 30, a lot of them haven’t been to school and they are claiming that Nigeria is an oil producing country, therefore, they should sit and do nothing, and get housing, healthcare, education free,” he said during a panel appearance with world leaders at the forum.
In a February 2016 interview with UK Telegraph, Buhari dropped another clanger. He said the young citizens of his country have a knack for criminality and should not be granted asylum in the UK.
With the Buhari experience, it is indubitable that Nigerians must place a high premium on education — not just certificate – in choosing their leaders. The cost of electing leaders who do not have the intellectual grit to understand and handle matters is far too high.
The senate has asked the president to speak to citizens on this threat, and Nigerians are also asking the president to speak to them. This is an abnormality. Citizens must not beg to hear from their president. But because it is Buhari involved here, we have to beg and even excuse the crass inefficiency and vacuity.
Perhaps, the president is still trying to get a hang of it. I think he has ‘’capable handlers’’ who can break it down to him in ABC.
Mr President, speak to your citizens. The words of a leader are more resounding and assuring than the blandishment of proxies.
PS: Let’s follow all health protocol as advised by the NCDC.
• Wash your hands regularly with soap under running water.
• Cover your mouth and nose properly with handkerchief or tissue paper when sneezing and/or coughing. You may also cough into your elbow if a handkerchief is not available.
• Avoid close contact with anyone showing symptoms of respiratory illness such as coughing and sneezing.
• Avoid self-medication, report to the nearest health facility when you experience any of the above-mentioned symptoms.
Fredrick Nwabufo is a writer and journalist.
Sanusi: Once Upon An Emir, By Wole Olaoye
We are all potential Ex-es: ex-student, ex-director, ex-lecturer, ex-senator, ex-governor, ex-president, ex-oba, ex-emir…. The inimitable Zik famously reminded us when he had a spat with Ukpabi Asika that Ex was an inevitable prefix for any human being as was evidenced by the fact that a certain young man who would someday become an ex-Administrator, was the son of an ex-postmaster!
So, what’s so apocalyptic about Sanusi Lamido Sanusi joining the ranks of ex-potentates? Nothing? Everything! Don’t ever think that bell you are hearing is tolling for the former Emir of Kano. No. It could be signalling the beginning of a comprehensive demystification of traditional rulership by plebeians holding tenured political power. In centuries past, no plebeian messed with the traditional institution. The halo of nobility, the sheer vastness of a prince’s hereditary powers, rights and privileges, made the subject know his place.
Yesterday’s subjects are today’s political sovereign. They make no pretences to sophistication. They load a gun to kill a spider. When you dethrone a monarch and then deprive him of his liberty, forcefully banishing him to a place without electricity and potable water, you are playing god. If it was all a public relations Olympics, the calm dignity with which Sanusi handled the humiliation made people all over the world admire his chutzpa and hand him the gold medal. A
Life and its many puzzles! Why is it that for some men and women, “their sleep is taken away unless they cause some to fall”? What do you do about an ego that knows no satiation? As the Preacher in the Good Book timelessly says, “All the rivers flow into the sea, yet the sea is never full… The eye is not satisfied with seeing, nor the ear content with hearing… there is nothing new under the sun”.
The Yoruba have a poem that says just that. “The horse struts and frets and then dies. Being a veteran walker is no immunity to getting lost. Nothing new under the sun. I’ve seen kings reduced to slaves; and servants who mounted the throne. Haven’t my eyes beheld both river and sea? Haven’t I seen a hunchback on spindly legs, and a midget climbing a ladder to add condiment to the soup pot? Tell me, has anyone ever started a building from the roof?
The new Emir of Kano, Alhaji Aminu Ado Bayero, is a cousin of his predecessor. As royal intrigues go, when the dust is settled the sword will be sheathed and brother will embrace brother. That is the way of princes. Eventually, outsiders will realise that all they can ever be in palace politics is outsiders. Our very own Nobel prize winning Kongi was not amused by the scandalous extra-judicial detention of the former emir.
He put the emir’s travail down to his progressive stance: “Emir Sanusi was a one-man EFCC sanitisation squad in the banking system, taking on the powerful corrupters of that institution…. “Most important of all, and most pertinently for the nation, Sanusi was one of the early warning voices against religious extremism whose bitter fruits the nation is currently reaping….
The doors of enlightened society remain wide open to Muhammad Sanusi. As for his current crowing Nemesis, a different kind of gates remain yawning to receive him when, as must, the days of governorship immunity finally come to an end.” Support for Sanusi is not limited to radical voices.
Veteran technocrat Alhaji Ahmed Joda penned a panegyric in support of the ex-emir: “The purpose of this letter to you is not to commiserate with you, because I know that you must have known the likely consequences of the principled position you have taken. The reality we must face in Northern Nigeria is that the evil forces of feudalism that have kept us in bondage for so long are still there and fighting. You have been the only voice that has been telling us this truth….”
It is easy to kick a man given a pin-fall by fate, or piss on the grave of a fallen warrior. Dead men don’t bite. Real friends show up when you are in life’s valley. Say what you will, I would rather have a friend like Nasir el Rufai when the chips are down. In the midst of all the turmoil, conspiracy theories have surfaced to the effect that the dethronement is but a political sleight-of-hand to propel Sanusi to Nigeria’s presidency in 2023. Caution! Let’s separate the issues. Political succession is totally different from fundamental human rights. Sanusi is not my next president.
My views on power rotation are well documented. The ex-emir will go down in history as a champion for the rights of the poorest of the poor. He advocated for a new Northern Nigeria where old backward practices such as the almajiri system and irresponsible parenting will be abandoned. His was the voice crying out in the desert, lift my people up from the cesspit of penury. The attempt to demonise him after dethronement through various allegations, including one on religious fundamentalism, is dead on arrival. The same fate will befall the vilification of El Rufai on account of his loyalty to Sanusi. Please quote me: Modern challenges can never be resolved with a resort to medieval solutions.
Christopher Hitchens’ Q&A may someday apply to the ex-Kings College boy who’s now an ex-king.
Sanusi Dethronement: The North Only Beheads The Bearers Of Truth
By Fredrick Nwabufo
Northern Nigeria is prostrate. It is the axis of uglies – banditry, insurgency, kidnapping, diseases, ignorance, and drug abuse. Alas! The region’s elite are aware of the problems, but look away because the disequilibrious status quo sustains them. What is petrifying, however, is that they maul and clobber at anyone who spits the truth in their faces.
I think, this is the mortal sin of Muhammad Sanusi II, emir of Kano – beyond his politics with Abdullahi Ganduje, governor of Kano.
The World Bank says 87 percent of Nigeria’s poor are in the north. And that while poverty is plummeting in the south, it is rocketing in the upper region.
“Poverty in the northern regions of the country has been increasing especially in the north-west zone. Almost half of all poor lived in the north-west and the north accounts for 87 percent of all poor in the country in 2016,’’ the Bretton Woods institution said in its report entitled ‘Advancing social protection in a dynamic Nigeria’ in February 2020.
In August, 2019, the federal government revealed that 1,460 people were killed by bandits in seven months. And that the north-west is the worst-hit by this bloody enterprise. The killings have steadied, expanding in proportion and execution in the region.
In his accustomed manner, Sanusi recently vocalised these depressing figures of retrogression in the north – as regards the World Bank report — earning himself praise from progressive Nigerians and reprimand from the usual suspects — those stuck in the cesspit of bigotry.
Also, the gadfly emir of Kano, whom I regard as the John the Baptist of the north for his vociferous condemnation of this status quo, is alone in his advocacy against irresponsible polygamy, Al-majiri and child marriage – practices the northern elite espouse. He is the face of a progressive north; the northerner of the new age.
As a matter of fact, on different occasions he had complained about the northern elite whom he said wanted to silence him for speaking the truth about the region.
‘’Our colleagues and compatriots among the elite do not like statistics. Numbers are disturbing. I recently gave a speech in which I said the north-east and north-west of Nigeria are the poorest parts of the country. This simple statement of fact has generated so much heat; the noise has yet to die down. The response to this speech has been a barrage of personal attacks and insults aimed at silencing any voices that dare shine the light on the society to which we are saying Bring Back our Girls,’’ he said at a lecture held to commemorate the Chibok girls abduction.
And I guess they can only take the throne away from him but cannot take away his royalty in the community of decent humans. Really, I believe the emir would rather give up his throne than be gagged by the shareholders of iniquity.
To say the least, Sanusi’s dethroning was not unexpected. Ganduje had always shown his hand in this plot. Really, the emir of Kano never hid his dislike for him. But what is there to like about a governor who was allegedly caught on camera stuffing wads of dollars into his babariga? In the build-up to the 2019 governorship election in the state, the emir was not shy in expressing his disapproval to Ganduje’s candidature.
So, Ganduje, who considers Sanusi a ‘’loud mouth’’, plotted a bitter revenge after he was re-elected. He had moved to remove the emir in 2018 but for the intervention of some ‘’higher powers’’. However, he whittle-down the power of the emir by creating new emirates from his domain. He was not done though. He rustled-up allegations, set up probe panels – all in the desperation to embarrass Sanusi.
But Sanusi was still talking.
Really, one of the most abrasive places to exist is in the circle of non-progressives. You talk different, think different or act different, they will feel threatened. Even when you try to clown around; the aboriginal clowns will still feel threatened because you do not look the part.
I think, Emir Sanusi is light-years away from the people he is dealing with in Kano government. He is needed more at the top echelon of government where he can contribute more meaningfully to the development of Nigeria.
Northern Nigeria is not ready for an emir like Sanusi. He is ahead of his time.
Fredrick Nwabufo is a writer and journalist.
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