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Typhoid fever: Symptoms, Causes, Complication, Treatments And Prevention

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images (1)kjuTyphoid fever is caused by Salmonella typhi bacteria. Typhoid fever is rare in industrialized countries. However, it remains a serious health threat in the developing world, especially for children.
Typhoid fever spreads through contaminated food and water or through close contact with someone who’s infected. Signs and symptoms usually include high fever, headache, abdominal pain, and either constipation or diarrhea. When treated with antibiotics, most people with typhoid fever feel better within a few days, although a small percentage of them may die of complications.
Vaccines against typhoid fever are available, but they’re only partially effective. Vaccines usually are reserved for those who may be exposed to the disease or are traveling to areas where typhoid fever is common.

Symptoms
1st week of illness
Once signs and symptoms do appear, you’re likely to experience:
Fever, that starts low and increases daily, often to as high as 103 or 104 F (39.4 or 40 C)
Headache
Weakness and fatigue
Dry cough
Loss of appetite
Abdominal pain
Diarrhea or constipation
Rash

2nd week of illness
If you don’t receive treatment for typhoid fever, you may enter a second stage during which you become very ill and experience:
Continuing high fever
Either diarrhea or severe constipation
Considerable weight loss
Extremely distended abdomen

3rd week of illness
By the third week, you may:
Become delirious
Lie motionless and exhausted with your eyes half-closed in what’s known as the typhoid state
Life-threatening complications often develop at this time.

4th week of illness
Improvement may come slowly during the fourth week. Your fever is likely to decrease gradually until your temperature returns to normal in another week to 10 days. But signs and symptoms can return up to two weeks after your fever has subsided

Causes
Typhoid fever is caused by a virulent bacterium called Salmonella typhi. Although they’re related, S. typhi and the bacterium responsible for salmonellosis, another serious intestinal infection, aren’t the same. The bacteria that cause typhoid fever spread through contaminated food or water and occasionally through direct contact with someone who is infected.
Complications
Inflammation of the heart muscle (myocarditis)
Inflammation of the lining of the heart and valves (endocarditis)
Pneumonia
Inflammation of the pancreas (pancreatitis)
Inflammation of the gallbladder (cholecystitis)
Kidney or bladder infections
Infection and inflammation of the membranes and fluid surrounding your brain and spinal cord (meningitis)
Psychiatric problems such as delirium, hallucinations and paranoid psychosis

Treatment and drugs
Antibiotic therapy is the only effective treatment for typhoid fever.
Commonly prescribed antibiotics
Ciprofloxacin (Cipro). In the United States, doctors often prescribe this for nonpregnant adults.

Ceftriaxone (Rocephin). This injectable antibiotic is an alternative for women who are pregnant and for children who may not be candidates for ciprofloxacin.

Other treatment steps aimed at managing symptoms include:
Drinking fluids. This helps prevent the dehydration that results from a prolonged fever and diarrhea. If you’re severely dehydrated, you may need to receive fluids through a vein in your arm (intravenously).

Eating a healthy diet. Nonbulky, high-calorie meals can help replace the nutrients you lose when you’re sick.

Prevention
Prevent infecting others
If you’re recovering from typhoid, these measures can help keep others safe:
Wash your hands often. This is the single most important thing you can do to keep from spreading the infection to others. Use plenty of hot, soapy water and scrub thoroughly for at least 30 seconds, especially before eating and after using the toilet.

Clean household items daily. Clean toilets, door handles, telephone receivers and water taps at least once a day with a household cleaner and paper towels or disposable cloths.

Avoid handling food. Avoid preparing food for others until your doctor says you’re no longer contagious. If you work in the food service industry or a health care facility, you won’t be allowed to return to work until tests show that you’re no longer shedding typhoid bacteria.

Keep personal items separate. Set aside towels, bed linen and utensils for your own use and wash them frequently in hot, soapy water. Heavily soiled items can be soaked first in disinfectant.

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Nigerian & Jamaica Celebrates 50 Years Of Diplomatic Relations With Direct Flights to Jamaica

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As the festive season approaches, travel enthusiasts and lovers of fun, relaxation or  adventure, will have a chance to create history, by being part of the first direct charter flights from Lagos, Nigeria to Montego Bay, Jamaica. The flights are in celebration of 50 years of diplomatic relations between Nigeria and Jamaica. Both countries have worked hard to promote culture, education, industrial and economic development, at different levels.

The first flight will leave Lagos on 21 December and return on 28 December 2020. A second rotation will take place from 30 December to 6 January 2021. Each flight will last for just over 11 hours and relieves the traveler of the stress of securing transit visas via Europe or the US and the uncertainties associated with multiple connections.

The flights are being coordinated by the Jamaican High Commission in Abuja and Nigerians Travel Too, a leading tour operator based in Lagos and the UK. They are also a reflection of the creative fusion of the Nigerian and Jamaican history and culture, which both partners have dubbed the Nai-Jamaica Project. A dedicated website www.nai-jamaica.com has been launched, to showcase the range of travel and business opportunities that are available.


In tandem with the upcoming flights, handcrafted holiday experiences and multiple travel packages have been designed with each visitor in mind. The main items covered include: flight tickets, accommodation, airport transfers, tours and meals among others. [Participating tour operators are also offering free visa processing and support].

Nigeria’s trusted international carrier, Air Peace, will facilitate each trip with its elegant Boeing 777-300ER aircraft. Passengers will be able to travel in style and comfort across the First, Business and Economy Class cabins that are on offer at unbeatable rates.

Jamaica’s High Commissioner to Nigeria, HE Esmond Reid, has hailed the direct flights as, “An historic and unique opportunity, as part of our 50th anniversary celebrations, to reconnect with family and friends from Nigeria, Jamaica, the Caribbean and other parts of the world, in a world class tourist destination”.


Jamaica has won many international travel and tourism awards and has developed special COVID-19 protocols for the tourism sector. These are designed to protect and enhance the tourism experience for visitors and workers in the industry, in the face of the global pandemic.

Widely recognized as the “heartbeat of the world” and the land of Reggae Music, Jamaica is home to various tourist attractions and cultural icons such as Bob Marley, Marcus Garvey and Usain Bolt.

Visitors can never get enough of the opportunities for rafting, diving, golf, tennis, fishing, nature walks or horseback riding, among other exciting activities that are available in Jamaica. Places like the Abeokuta Nature Park and the Calabar High School also add special significance for visitors from Nigeria.

There will be nowhere else like Jamaica this Christmas and New Year. You can’t afford to miss this awesome Nai-jamaica experience!!!

Tickets are selling like hot cakes. Bookings will close on 20 November to guarantee visa processing, so don’t delay.

For more information on travel, tours and packages visit:
www.nai-jamaica.com
IG; @nigerianstraveltoo

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‘I Tested Positive To HIV After Gang Raped By 3 Men – Chef Ayomide

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‘I Tested Positive To HIV After Being Gang Raped By 3 Men For Being Gay’ – Chef Ayomide
Ayomide and his lover

Ayomide and his lover

Nigerian chef, Ayomide Idowu, who is also a male rape survivor, has taken to his Instagram page to tell his story.

The openly gay young man recalled how he was allegedly gang raped by 3 hoodlums at the age of 19 because of his sexuality and how he eventually contracted HIV.

Ayomide revealed his life never remained the same as he was also arrested and victimized by the police.

In his words;

“I could remember last 5years ago
What I pass through from 3 hoodlums
I was thoroughly beaten and gang-raped
All because I’m Gay…they took advantage of me
I was 19years old boy then, I suffered humiliation
Arbitrary arrest from police,inhuman degrading treatment,I lost my precious Home at the age of 19years..no parents no family…it really hurts to be an orphan….after I lost my virginity from the raped….having unprotected sex from those hoodlums I WAS TESTED POSITIVE….being positive my mood changed…I started my medication and think less…I stay away from smoking and alcohol…I eat Good fruits and vegetables…thanks to God I’m a testifier now
I’m undetectable my CD4 850 viral load 10
It really worth testimony 🙏🤦im looking healthy and stunning…being HIV positive is not the end of life…it reveals the other side of you…my aims of sharing my life threatening story as an orphan,so that people can learn from this…. 5years living positively”

Read Also: GAYS are one of the most influential & successful people in Nigeria — Chef Ayomide

See his post below:

The gay activist’s post

The gay activist’s post

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Actress Osas Ighodaro Celebrates Her 30th Birthday With Emotional Post

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Actress Osas Ighodaro Celebrates Her 30th Birthday With Emotional Post
Osas Ighodaro

Osas Ighodaro

Nigerian actress, Osas Ighodaro penned an emotional note via Instagram as she clocked 30-years-old on Monday.

To mark her birthday, the single mother of one posted a monochrome photo of herself as she wished for people to continue praying for those who lost their lives during these turbulent period.

Ighodaro wrote;

“Thank God for another year. Happy Birthday to me. If you know me, you know I absolutely love birthdays but this year it certainly hits different. I’m overwhelming grateful for life and thankful to God to be able to see another birthday bc unfortunately many haven’t and won’t have that opportunity.

I am hopeful for better days for myself, those that I love and hold dear and most certainly for my country Nigeria. I pray for unity, peace, harmony and togetherness. We all deserve it.

My birthday wish is to please continue to pray for those innocent lives lost. Please remain hopeful and focused because I truly believe better days are soon ahead by God’s grace.

Peace, Love and Blessings.”

See her post below:

The actress’ post

The actress’ post

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